Censoring climate science?

I’ve been seeing a number of panicked reports recently about climate science in the USA being censored. So far, however, every US Government climate-related website I’ve checked is still online:

NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information

“NCEI provides analyses of weather and climate events, placing them into proper historical perspective, understanding their unusualness, and increasingly comparing recent events to expectations of future climate conditions… NCEI publishes the most recent national and international reports on the state of the climate as well as various other peer-reviewed papers and articles.” – Climate pages online.

NASA

“The mission of ‘Global Climate Change: Vital Signs of the Planet’ is to provide the public with accurate and timely news and information about Earth’s changing climate, along with current data and visualizations, presented from the unique perspective of NASA, the world’s leading climate research agency.” – Climate pages online.

EPA

“EPA partners with more than 40 data contributors from various government agencies, academic institutions, and other organizations to compile a key set of indicators related to the causes and effects of climate change. The indicators are published in EPA’s report, Climate Change Indicators in the United States…” – Climate pages online.

USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture

“The National Institute of Food and Agriculture (NIFA) provides leadership and funding for programs that advance agriculture-related sciences…” – Climate pages online.

NPS

“The National Park Service preserves unimpaired the natural and cultural resources and values of the National Park System for the enjoyment, education, and inspiration of this and future generations.” – Climate pages online.

We’ll see if that changes, I guess. There does seem to have been a dispute about politically-charged tweets from official NPS Twitter accounts. That dispute underscores the guideline that official tweets should be, well, official. Like other social media, Twitter allows people to blur the line between personal opinions and official announcements. Being rapid, it also does not fit well with an official publication approval process, which can lead to problems. In the case of the disputed tweets, NPS social media guidelines may well have been breached, so a reaction was hardly surprising. I do hope that the NPS as a whole doesn’t intend to be politically active, though, since that could end rather badly for both the NPS and the USA – the job of the NPS is an important one.


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Newton, gravity, and the apple


Isaac Newton and his apple (image: LadyofHats)

Among the numerous problems in this famous videoclip from South Africa (which I have previously mentioned) are some serious misunderstandings regarding Isaac Newton, gravity, and the apple story. According to William Stukeley (writing in 1726), “After dinner, the weather being warm, we went into the garden, and drank tea under the shade of some apple trees; only he [Newton], and myself. Amidst other discourse, he told me, he was just in the same situation, as formerly, the notion of gravitation came into his mind. ‘Why should that apple always descend perpendicularly to the ground,’ thought he to himself; occasion’d by the fall of an apple, as he sat in a contemplative mood. ‘Why should it not go sideways, or upwards?’

Of course, Newton was hardly the first person to think seriously about gravity. About 2,000 years earlier, Aristotle had recorded his theories on the subject. These had a great influence on the Greek-speaking world, the Muslim world, and Western Europe, up until the time of Galileo. Galileo demonstrated several flaws in Aristotle’s approach, and made measurements which showed that falling objects follow parabolic paths.


Parabolas traced out by a bouncing ball (photo: MichaelMaggs)

Newton’s genius lay in being able to explain both Galileo’s findings and Kepler’s laws of planetary motion using a single mathematical equation: F = G m1 m2 / d 2. This articulated the strength of the gravitational force, while leaving the true nature of gravity mysterious. Consequently, Newton’s work was hardly the last word on the subject. Einstein’s general relativity made considerable advances in the understanding of gravity, but several questions still remain.

The scientific understanding of gravity neither started nor ended with Newton, which means that the speaker in the video linked above is quite wrong in saying: “Western knowledge … is saying that it was Newton and only Newton who knew and saw an apple falling and out of nowhere decided gravity existed and created an equation and that is it. Whether people knew Newton or not‚ or whatever happens in Western Africa‚ Northern Africa‚ the thing is the only way to explain gravity is through Newton, who sat under a tree and saw an apple fall.

Western knowledge says nothing of the kind, of course. It is a sad thing that “decolonisation” is being driven by such radical misunderstandings, when what is needed may in fact be a review of the humanities and improvements in basic education.


Metallic hydrogen

It has long been known that hydrogen forms a metallic solid at moderate to low temperatures and extremely high pressures. Last year, Ranga Dias and Isaac F. Silvera at Harvard University were the first to actually produce this metal, using the enormous pressure of 495 gigapascals (see their paper).

At higher temperatures, hydrogen forms a metallic liquid, and this is believed to exist at the heart of Jupiter and Saturn. This liquid has yet to be observed.


Australia Day

Today is Australia Day, marking the 1788 arrival of the First (British) Fleet in Australia. As well as establishing the island continent as a British colony, the First Fleet advanced the scientific study of the region. John White, Surgeon-General to the colony, was a keen amateur botanist and zoologist. His Journal of a Voyage to New South Wales (with colour plates added later) included notes on Australian flora and fauna:

Arthur Bowes Smyth, a naval surgeon on the Lady Penrhyn, made similar observations. His journal included 25 drawings, like this one of an emu (the first known drawing of that bird):


The magnificent Doble steam car

The video above shows the beautiful 1920s Doble steam car owned by Jay Leno (see this article). This magnificent vehicle represents the pinnacle of a technology that was already dead when it was built. A front-mounted boiler powers four cylinders at the rear, which drive the back wheels via spur gears (see below). There is no traditional gearbox or transmission. The steam is condensed and recycled, so that water does not have to be constantly replenished. All very efficient.

Leno says that “The last days of an old technology are almost always better than the first days of a new technology,” and aesthetically (in spite of my love of solar cars) he is probably right. Something similar can be said about the ultimate examples of castle-building, which occurred when castles were already obsolete (see below). So watch the video of this wonderful vintage car!


World Solar Challenge 2017 Current Status

The infographic above shows solar car teams that are likely to be entering in the World Solar Challenge, with my preliminary estimate of reported current progress (on a red–amber–green scale).

Many teams are obviously working hard behind the scenes, so that the assessment here is very much subject to change. Still, it is clear that we can expect a healthy field for the WSC this October. A revised version of this infographic will be posted later.


World Solar Challenge 2017 Team List

Here are the 42 solar car teams (from 21 countries) that are scheduled to race in the World Solar Challenge this October, with recent news and links to their social media ( Facebook LinkedIn Flickr YouTube Instagram Twitter ). Static scrutineering for the WSC begins on Oct 3, the race starts on Oct 8, and the award ceremony is on Oct 15.

In spite of the 2017 rule changes, most teams (20) are using the kind of asymmetrical Challenger-class design that has done well in past competitions, while 6 teams (Cambridge, Kogakuin, MDH, Michigan, NWU, and Tokai) have produced symmetrical cars of various kinds. There is also an interesting range of Cruiser designs (14 cars). This list is sorted by team number, and was last updated 01:57 on Oct 3 (AEDT). Updates will be provided in follow-up posts.

US In Australia (Darwin)  University of Michigan 

This team came 4th in the Challenger class at WSC 2015, and 1st in the 2016 American Solar Challenge. They are returning to WSC in 2017. Their new WSC car is called Novum. Their team number (2) is a long-standing tradition. They have revealed their new car. It’s a long sleek bullet of a car with a GaAs array, and I’m happy to see that Michigan “thought outside the box” on this one. They shipped their famous semi to Australia before shipping the car on August 18. This time everything arrived intact, and there was no need for emergency construction of a battery pack. They held a mock race in the Outback before the real event. They were recently spotted in Darwin. They are in garage #1 at Hidden Valley Raceway.

NL In Australia (Darwin)  Nuon Solar Team 

This team came 1st in the Challenger class at WSC 2015. They are returning in 2017. They also raced in the 2016 Sasol Solar Challenge in South Africa, coming 1st. Their new WSC car is called Nuna9. Their team number (3) is a long-standing tradition. In June they set a world record, clocking up 882 km in a 12-hour track session. They have revealed their new car. It looks a lot like the Belgian car, and perhaps that is the winning design this year. Among the compact catamarans Nuon’s car is particularly small, because of its GaAs array. Only three female students (Sharon van Luik, Lisanne de Rooij, and Emma Vercoulen) can fit inside the cockpit. They shipped the car to Sydney on August 23, with the team following on August 26. They received a major setback when their battery could not be shipped out of Singapore, but this was eventually resolved. They were recently spotted in Darwin (Nightcliff Primary school). They are based offsite from Hidden Valley Raceway.

CL In Australia (Darwin)  Antakari Solar Team 

They are competing in WSC 2017. Their new WSC car is called Intikallpa IV. Antakari will be joined by members of the Appalachian State University team, who plan to race their own car in 2019. They have revealed their new car. It has been shipped to Australia. They were recently spotted in Darwin. They are in garage #4 at Hidden Valley Raceway.

SG In Australia (Darwin)  Singapore Polytechnic 

This team competed in the Cruiser class at WSC 2015. They are returning in 2017. Their new WSC car is called SunSPEC 5. They have revealed their new car. The car is a 2-seater. It looks beautifully sleek. Let’s hope the team has better luck than in 2015 (when their car was destroyed by fire and had to be rebuilt in a hurry). The Straits Times gave them local news coverage, and they road-tested the car before shipping it on the short sea journey to Darwin on September 5. They were recently spotted in Darwin. They are in garage #18 at Hidden Valley Raceway.

AU In Australia (Darwin)  Adelaide University 

This team came 21st in the Challenger class at WSC 2015. They are returning in 2017. Their new WSC car is called Lumen II. They have revealed their new car. They were recently spotted in Darwin. They are in garage #13 at Hidden Valley Raceway.

BE In Australia (Darwin)  Punch Powertrain Solar Team 

This team came 3rd in the 2015 Abu Dhabi Solar Challenge, and 5th in the Challenger class at WSC 2015. They are returning in 2017. They also raced in the 2016 ESC, coming 2nd. Their new WSC car is called Punch 2. They have revealed their new car. And a fast-looking car it is! See here for a short video. The car shipped to Darwin on August 23, with the team departing on September 4. They recently passed a random breath test near Darwin. They are based offsite from Hidden Valley Raceway.

US In Australia (Darwin)  Iowa State University (PrISUm) 

This is a new team in the WSC Cruiser class for 2017. They came 7th in the 2016 American Solar Challenge. Their new WSC car is called Penumbra. They have revealed their new car. The car is a 4-seater. They are using specialised weather-prediction software for the race. They shipped the car to Australia on September 1 and it has arrived. The team flew out on September 14. They did pre-race testing on the Stuart Highway. They were recently spotted in Darwin. They are in garage #27 at Hidden Valley Raceway.

10  JP In Australia (Darwin)  Tokai University 

This team came 7th in the 2015 Abu Dhabi Solar Challenge, and 3rd in the Challenger class at WSC 2015. They are returning in 2017. They also raced in the 2016 Sasol Solar Challenge in South Africa, coming 2nd. Their new WSC car is called Tokai Challenger. They have revealed their new car. It’s a radical and elegant design, different from anything else in the competition. Unlike some of the other top cars, however, it uses Si solar cells (Panasonic HIT cells, with 24.1% efficiency). There are more technical details (in Japanese) here and here. The track width is 0.61 m, which is awfully narrow – I hope they don’t roll the car. The team flew out to Australia on September 20. They decided to test-drive the race route north-to-south (unlike other teams that did so in reverse). They were recently spotted in Darwin. They are in tent #1 at Hidden Valley Raceway.

11  DE In Australia (Darwin)  Bochum University of Applied Sciences 

This team came 3rd in the Cruiser class at WSC 2015. They are returning in 2017. They also entered three cars in the 2016 ESC, coming 3rd, 4th, and 5th. Their new WSC car is called thyssenkrupp blue.cruiser. They have revealed their new car. The car is a 4-seater. Like every other Bochum car, it looks sexy, but the cockpit seems a little cramped (though not as much as Minnesota’s 2013 car). Equipment for the team has been shipped to Sydney for the race, with the car itself due to arrive on September 11. The first few team members flew out in late August, after a test event with Aachen, and spent time preparing for the race in the outback. They had an unfortunate mishap there, and credit PrISUm, Minnesota, Stanford, and Sunswift with helping them out. They were recently spotted in Darwin. They are based offsite from Hidden Valley Raceway.

12  GB In Australia  Cambridge University 

This team came 22nd in the Challenger class at WSC 2015. They are returning in 2017. They also raced in the 2016 ESC, coming 10th. Their new WSC car is called Mirage. There have been signs of construction. They had problems with their canopy in the UK, and shipped the car to Australia unfinished, but had customs difficulties here, although these were eventually resolved. Tragically, however, an accident has prevented them from competing in the race.

14  AU In Australia (Darwin)  Flinders University 

This is a new team in the WSC Cruiser class for 2017. Their new WSC car is called Investigator Mark III. They have revealed their new car. The car is a 3-seater. The car looks nice, but does not appear to be aerodynamically optimised to any great extent. Nor does it seem to have much in the way of solar cells. They were recently spotted in Darwin. They are in garage #14 at Hidden Valley Raceway.

15  AU In Australia (Darwin)  Western Sydney Solar Team 

This team came 10th in the Challenger class at WSC 2015. They are returning in 2017. Their new WSC car is called Unlimited 2.0. They have revealed their new car. See this news story for some technical details. People are apparently calling the design an “angry platypus.” They scheduled a “mock race” north of Adelaide. In the spirit of the event, they also offered a fantastic degree of hospitality to international teams passing through Sydney. They were recently spotted in Darwin. They are in garage #2 at Hidden Valley Raceway.

16  US In Australia (Darwin)  Stanford Solar Car Project 

This team came 6th in the Challenger class at WSC 2015. They are returning in 2017. Their new WSC car is called Sundae. They have revealed their new car. It’s another compact catamaran, and looks fast. They shipped it to Australia, where it arrived on September 10. They were recently spotted in Darwin. They are in garage #21 at Hidden Valley Raceway.

18  MY In Australia (Darwin)  MARA University of Technology / EcoPhoton 

This team came 26th in the Challenger class at WSC 2015. They are returning in 2017. Their new WSC car is called TUAH. They have revealed their new car. They have shipped the car to Australia, with the team following later. They were recently spotted in Darwin. They are in garage #19 at Hidden Valley Raceway.

20  GB In Australia (Darwin)  Durham University 

This team came 27th in the Challenger class at WSC 2015. They are returning in 2017. Their WSC car is called DUSC. They have, I understand, modified their 2015 car for this year’s race, and have shipped it to Australia. Being an older vehicle, it is one of the few three-fairing cars in this year’s race. They were recently spotted in Darwin. They are in garage #5 at Hidden Valley Raceway.

21  NL In Australia (Darwin)  Solar Team Twente 

This team came 2nd in the Challenger class at WSC 2015. They are returning in 2017. They also raced in the 2016 ESC, coming 1st. Their new WSC car is called Red Shift. Their team number (21) is a pun and a wish for success in the race (“Twente-One”). They have revealed their new car. They shipped the car to Australia on August 16. Unfortunately there was a one-week delay in arrival of the car, but that’s why teams need to ship early. The team travelled to Australia on August 23 and August 29. They were recently spotted in Darwin. They are based offsite from Hidden Valley Raceway.

22  SE In Australia (Darwin)  MDH Solar Team 

This is a new team in the WSC Challenger class for 2017. Their new WSC car is called MDH Solar Car. They are from Mälardalen University College in Eskilstuna, Sweden. They have revealed their new car. They shipped the car to Australia on September 11. As with several other teams, they had problems shipping batteries (which, sadly, are not yet resolved). They were recently spotted in Darwin. They are in garage #22 at Hidden Valley Raceway.

23  IR In Australia (Darwin)  University of Tehran 

This team competed in the Cruiser class at WSC 2015. They are returning in 2017. Their new WSC car is called Persian Gazelle 4. They have opted for a more traditional-looking cruiser this year, it seems. There have been signs of construction. The car seems to be a 4-seater solar Lamborghini Aventador. Instagram showed them working very hard to complete this beautiful vehicle, and they seem to have done so with very little time to spare. They shipped the car to Australia via Dubai, with the team arriving on September 28. They seem not to have received the car yet. They were recently spotted in Darwin.

25  JP In Australia (Darwin)  Nagoya Institute of Technology 

This team came 16th in the Challenger class at WSC 2015. They are returning in 2017. Their new WSC car is called Horizon 17. They are active on social media, but only in Japanese. They have revealed their new car. They have shipped their car to Australia. They were recently spotted in Darwin. They are in garage #17 at Hidden Valley Raceway.

28  KR In Australia (Darwin)  Korea National University of Transportation 

This is a new team in the WSC Challenger class for 2017. Their new WSC car is called Woong-bi. Their team number (28) is apparently the Korean national telephone prefix (82) reversed. They have revealed their new car. They have shipped their car to Australia. They were recently spotted in Darwin. They are in garage #12 at Hidden Valley Raceway.

30  AU In Australia (Darwin)  Clenergy Team Arrow 

This team came 5th in the 2015 Abu Dhabi Solar Challenge, and 8th in the Challenger class at WSC 2015. They are returning in 2017 with a Cruiser. Their new WSC car is called Arrow STF. They have revealed their new car. The car is a 2-seater. They were recently spotted in Darwin. They are in garage #23 at Hidden Valley Raceway.

32  US In Australia (Darwin)  Principia Solar Car Team 

This team came 17th in the Challenger class at WSC 2015, and 5th in the 2016 American Solar Challenge. They are returning to WSC in 2017. Their new WSC car is called Ra X. They have revealed their new car. They also raced their car at FSGP 2017. They shipped the car to Australia on August 1. They were recently spotted in Darwin. They are in garage #6 at Hidden Valley Raceway.

34  IN In Australia (Darwin)  R.V. College of Engineering 

This team came 29th in the Challenger class at WSC 2015. They are returning in 2017. Their new WSC car is called Arka. They have revealed their new car. They appear to have learned a lot from their 2015 experiences, and the car looks good. It has been shipped to Australia. They flew out of India on September 25. They were recently spotted in Darwin. They are in garage #3 at Hidden Valley Raceway.

35  HK In Australia (Darwin)  Hong Kong Institute of Vocational Education 

This team competed in the Cruiser class at WSC 2015. They are returning in 2017. Their new WSC car is called SOPHIE VI. They have revealed their new car. The car is a 2-seater. The finish seems more polished than their 2015 vehicle, but driver visibility seems a little restricted. They shipped the car to Australia on August 29. They were recently spotted in Darwin. They are in garage #15 at Hidden Valley Raceway.

37  JP In Australia (Darwin)  Goko High School

This team came 14th in the Challenger class at WSC 2015. They are returning in 2017. Their WSC car is called Musoushin. The car appears to be an asymmetrical version of their 2015 car, and is one of the few three-fairing cars in this year’s race. They have shipped their car to Australia. They were recently spotted in Darwin. They are in garage #7 at Hidden Valley Raceway.

38  ZA In Australia (Darwin)  North West University 

This team came 11th in the Challenger class at WSC 2015. They are returning in 2017. They also raced in the 2016 Sasol Solar Challenge in South Africa, coming 4th. Their new WSC car is called Naledi. They have revealed their new car. Its unusual design is somewhat reminiscent of entries from the 1980s, but using modern composites. The cabin is based on a Jonker sailplane. They shipped this unusual car to Australia on August 30. We will see how it performs in the race! They were recently spotted in Darwin. They are based offsite from Hidden Valley Raceway.

40  NL In Australia (Darwin)  Solar Team Eindhoven 

This team came 1st in the Cruiser class at WSC 2015. They are returning in 2017. Their new WSC car is called Stella Vie. Their team number (40) is the Eindhoven telephone area code. They have revealed their new car. The car is a 5-seater. They shipped their car on August 19 and were the first team to arrive in Australia. However, they received a major setback when both their car and their battery became stuck in transit to Australia (the car eventually arrived, and the battery followed later). During the race they can be followed at solarteameindhoven.itility.nl. They were recently spotted in Darwin. They are based offsite from Hidden Valley Raceway.

42  AU In Australia (Darwin)  TAFE SA 

This team came 7th in the Cruiser class at WSC 2013. They are returning in 2017. Their new WSC car is called SAV. They are planning a different kind of solar vehicle. That kind of innovation makes me happy. They have revealed their new car. The car is a 2-seater. They were recently spotted in Darwin.

43  AU In Australia (Darwin)  Australian National University 

This is a new team in the WSC Challenger class for 2017. Their new WSC car is called MTAA Super Charge. They have revealed their new car. The car appears to be a rather high-drag design. It seems strange that there isn’t just a single driver-side fairing, for example, and the shape of the canopy is a little odd. They were recently spotted in Darwin. They are in garage #24 at Hidden Valley Raceway.

45  PL In Australia (Darwin)  Lodz Solar Team 

This team competed in the Cruiser class at WSC 2015. They are returning in 2017. They also raced in the 2016 Sasol Solar Challenge in South Africa, coming 5th. Their new WSC car is called Eagle Two. They have revealed their new car. The design seems to have been influenced by past Eindhoven cars, and (like Stella Vie) it is a 5-seater. The car was shipped to Australia by ship via the Suez Canal on July 17, and I’m keen to see it in action. Their previous car was good for weddings (and still is), but the new car has done no such duty yet. They were recently spotted in Darwin. They are in garage #9 at Hidden Valley Raceway.

46  SE In Australia (Darwin)  JU Solar Team 

This team came 15th in the Challenger class at WSC 2015. They are returning in 2017. Their new WSC car is called Solveig. Their team number (46) is the Swedish national telephone prefix. They have revealed their new car. The car was shipped to Darwin on August 30, with the team following on September 17 and October 1. They were recently spotted in Darwin. They are in tent #7 at Hidden Valley Raceway.

49  TH In Australia (Darwin)  Siam Technical College 

This team came 28th in the Challenger class at WSC 2015. They have a school Facebook, Instagram, and Twitter (as well as the team pages linked in the icons above). For 2017, they built two cars. This car, named Nikola, is entered in the Cruiser class. It has been officially revealed, and looks cool (although I’m not wild about the aero). The car is a 2-seater. It has been shipped to Australia. The second car (Edison, in the Challenger class) has been withdrawn. They flew out of Thailand on September 24. They seem not to have received their car yet. They were recently spotted in Darwin. They are in garage #29 at Hidden Valley Raceway.

52  US In Australia (Darwin)  University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign 

This is a new team in the WSC Adventure class for 2017. Their new WSC car is called Argo. They have revealed their new car. This is a relatively new team, but apparently locked in the design of their car before the change in the Challenger class rules. They are therefore aiming to finish the course, but are not racing competitively. They have shipped their car to Australia. They were recently spotted in Darwin. They are in garage #20 at Hidden Valley Raceway.

53  US In Australia (Darwin)  Mississippi Choctaw High School

They are racing in the WSC Adventure class in 2017. Their WSC car is called Tushka Hashi III. It is great to see these kids returning to Australia after their problems in the 2013 race (they developed electrical problems between Katherine and Dunmarra). They flew to Australia on September 22, after a send-off by the Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians. They seem not to have received their car yet. They were recently spotted in Darwin. They are in garage #30 at Hidden Valley Raceway.

70  DE In Australia (Darwin)  Sonnenwagen Aachen 

This is a new team in the WSC Challenger class for 2017. Their new WSC car is called Huawei Sonnenwagen. They have revealed their new car. I expect this team to do what Megalux did in 2015, coming from nowhere to race very well. They did a test event with Bochum on August 21. They shipped a container of equipment to Australia, but their car was temporarily stuck in Singapore. They were recently spotted in Darwin (Charles Darwin University). They are based offsite from Hidden Valley Raceway.

71  TR In Australia (Darwin)  Istanbul Technical University 

This team came 17th in the Challenger class at WSC 2013. They are returning in 2017. They also raced in the 2016 ESC, coming 7th. Their new WSC car is called BOW ISTKA. That stands for Bees On Wheels (their university logo is a bee) and Istanbul Development Agency. They built a cruiser in 2015, but did not race it at WSC, and they have gone back to the Challenger class this year. They have revealed their new car. They also scheduled some cross-country testing. Like several other teams, they have had problems shipping their car to Australia. They were recently spotted in Darwin. They are in garage #10 at Hidden Valley Raceway.

75  AU In Australia (Darwin)  University of New South Wales / Sunswift 

This team came 4th in the Cruiser class at WSC 2015. They are returning in 2017. Their new WSC car is called Violet. They have revealed their new car. The car is a 4-seater. They had a mishap with the car, but were able to repair the damage. They were recently spotted in Darwin. They are in garage #26 at Hidden Valley Raceway.

77  CA In Australia (Darwin)  University of Toronto / Blue Sky 

This team came 12th in the Challenger class at WSC 2015, and 3rd in the 2016 American Solar Challenge. They are returning to WSC in 2017. Their new WSC car is called Polaris. They have revealed their new car. They are hoping that the new car gets them into the top five this year. They have shipped the car to Australia. Like a few other teams, they have been testing on the Cox Peninsula. They were recently spotted in Darwin (Palmerston Senior College). They are based offsite from Hidden Valley Raceway.

82  KR In Australia (Darwin)  Kookmin University Solar Team 

This team came 20th in the Challenger class at WSC 2015. They are returning in 2017. Their new WSC car is called Taegeuk. Their team number (82) is the Korean national telephone prefix. They have revealed their new car. They have shipped their car to Australia. They were recently spotted in Darwin. They are in garage #11 at Hidden Valley Raceway.

88  JP In Australia (Darwin)  Kogakuin University 

This team came 2nd in the Cruiser class at WSC 2015. They are returning in 2017. Their new WSC car is called Wing. They have revealed their new car. It is a very creative and unusual design. That array above the body seems almost old-school, and I have no idea how well it will perform. There is a story here on the materials used. They shipped their car to Australia on July 31 (to Adelaide, giving them a chance to test their car driving north). The rumour mill says that they had a minor accident of some kind during testing. They were recently spotted in Darwin. They are in garage #16 at Hidden Valley Raceway.

94  US In Australia (Darwin)  University of Minnesota 

This team came 5th in the Cruiser class at WSC 2015, and 10th in the 2016 American Solar Challenge. They are returning to WSC in 2017. Their new WSC car is called Eos II. They have revealed their new car. The car is a 2-seater. It looks shiny and sleek. It seems that another team has taken their traditional number (35), however. They have shipped the car to Melbourne, where it is due to arrive September 15. The first part of the team left for Australia on September 8. They were recently spotted in Darwin. They are in garage #25 at Hidden Valley Raceway.

95  TW In Australia (Darwin)  Kaohsiung / Apollo 

This team came 6th in the Cruiser class at WSC 2013, and 9th in the 2015 Abu Dhabi Solar Challenge. They are returning in 2017. Their new WSC car is called Apollo VIII. A few more cars, and they will be due to land on the moon. They have revealed their new car. The car is a 2-seater. It was shipped to Adelaide. They flew out of Taiwan on September 25. They were recently spotted in Darwin. They are in garage #8 at Hidden Valley Raceway.

This post last updated 01:57 on 3 October 2017 AEDT