Science has a concept called energy, which includes electrical energy, chemical energy, kinetic energy, and other (interconvertible) forms. Energy can be measured, and obeys laws like E =  and E = ½mv2.

Then you have the “energy” involved in “energy medicine.” It does not correspond to energy in the scientific sense, cannot be measured or detected, and obeys no scientific laws. It is obviously not the same as the energy that scientists talk about. Why, one might even think it does not exist

Thermodynamic visualisation

This plaster model was made by the great James Clerk Maxwell in 1874 (the photograph was by taken by James Pickands II, 1942). This historic artefact is one of three copies, held in museums around the world, including the Cavendish and the Sloane Physics Laboratory at Yale.

The model shows the relationship between volume, energy, and entropy for a fictitious water-like substance, based on theoretical work by Josiah Willard Gibbs. The lines connect points of equal pressure and of equal temperature. Maxwell found the model a useful aid in his research. The model prefigured modern visualisation techniques – today we would use computer software to visualise such surfaces, like this:


Ground-penetrating radar and archaeology

Ground-penetrating radar (shown in action above) is a useful application of science to archaeology. Exploring the underground with microwaves saves a lot of digging!

The image below (click for details) is of a “slice” though an historic cemetery. The vertical axis shows depth. Yellow arrows mark probable human burials, while dashed blue lines mark probable lines of bedrock. The upper half-metre is a tangle of tree-roots, which it would have been difficult to dig through (had that been permitted, which it was not).

You can imagine how useful this technique would be in searching for a lost and buried city!


Rainbows are one of the most frequently observed atmospheric phenomena, although double rainbows can still get a strong reaction.

Rainbows form when light is refracted and reflected in droplets of water from rain (or some other source) as shown below. The light emerges at angles of up to 42°, so that the primary rainbow forms a circular halo around the antisolar point, at an angle of 42° from it. For the secondary rainbow, light enters the droplet from below and is internally reflected twice, emerging at angles of 51° or more, thus forming a larger halo (with reversed colours) around the antisolar point.

No light is refracted into the region between the primary and secondary rainbow, and this dark region (shown below in a photo by L.T. Hunter) is called Alexander’s band, after Alexander of Aphrodisias, who first discussed it in around 200 AD, in his commentary on Aristotle’s Meteorology.

Blue LEDS nobly rewarded

A blue LED (photo by “Hoenny”)

The Nobel Prize in Physics for 2014 goes to Isamu Akasaki, Hiroshi Amano, and Shuji Nakamura “for the invention of efficient blue light-emitting diodes which has enabled bright and energy-saving white light sources.” Congratulations!

Gallium nitride and indium gallium nitride were the key materials in making blue LEDs, while cerium(III)-doped yttrium aluminium garnet phosphors convert blue LEDs into white ones.

Blogroll: Carnot Cycle

Carnot Cycle is a thermodynamics blog (yes, it’s great that such a thing exists!). The image above is from a post on the ideal gas equation. Other interesting posts include converting relative to absolute humidity and lessons from science history. Definitely a blog worth reading!

Noctilucent clouds!

The beautiful Noctilucent clouds (photo above by Kevin Cho) are slightly misnamed. The name means “night-shining clouds,” but in fact they are only visible between the end of civil twilight and the end of astronomical twilight (and at latitudes north of 45°N or south of 45°S).

Noctilucent clouds are the visible form of polar mesospheric clouds, made up out of ice crystals in the normally very dry almost-vacuum at extremely high altitudes, around 80–90 km up (see NASA image of a polar mesospheric cloud above).

Noctilucent clouds were first identified as a distinct atmospheric phenomenon in 1885 (see the Google ngram below for uses of the phrase). The ice crystals from which noctilucent clouds are formed require both water vapour and dust for crystal growth nuclei. The sources of these ingredients is still mysterious, although at least some of the dust may come from meteors.

Yet another atmospheric phenomenon for the bucket list!